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      Edwin Chapin (english)
        Edwin Chapin    Edwin Hubbell Chapin (December 29, 1814-December 26, 1880), Universalist minister, author, lecturer, and social reformer, was one of the most popular speakers in America from the 1840s until his death. He w...

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      Edwin Chapin
           Edwin Chapin Edwin Hubbell Chapin (29 décembre 1814 - 26 décembre 1880), ministre universaliste, auteur, conférencier, et réformateur social, a été l'un des orateurs l...

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      Orestes Brownson (english)
           Orestes Brownson Orestes Augustus Brownson (Sept. 16, 1803-April 17, 1876) as a maverick Universalist and Unitarian minister, then an independently-minded journalist, essayist, and critic, was a wide-ranging commentator ...

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      Orestes Brownson
             Orestes Brownson Orestes Augustus Brownson (16 septembre 1803 - 17 avril 1876) en tant qu'universaliste et ministre unitarien non conformiste, puis journaliste indépendant d'esprit, essayiste...

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      Olympia Brown (english)
            Olympia Brown Olympia Brown (January 5, 1835-October 23, 1926) dedicated her life to opening doors for women. Among only a handful of women to graduate from college, she received her Bachelor of Arts degree from An...

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      Olympia Brown
             Olympia Brown Olympia Brown (5 janvier 1835 - 23 octobre 1926) a consacré sa vie à l'ouverture des portes pour les femmes. Parmi seulement une poignée de femmes d...

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      Henry Brooks AdamsHe returned to Boston on the eve of the Civil War in 1860 and tried to study law with Judge Horace Gray. His congressman father rescued him by making him his secretary. Henry continued his newspaper reporting, writing anonymously for the Boston Advertiser. When Congressman Adams was appointed United States Ambassador to England, Henry served as his father’s official secretary. For a while he sent news dispatches to the New York Times but stopped, fearing he would be discovered and charged with conflict of interest. The Adams' Unitarian acquaintances in England were: Charles DickensHarriet Martineau, and geologist Sir Charles Lyell. He reviewed Lyell’s Principles of Geology for the North American Review. Henry was in England for the duration of the Civil War. 

      Returning to the United States, Henry Adams took up journalism and political reform. Articles he wrote appeared in the recently founded Nation and the New York Post. He advocated revenue reform and associated with those who had similar concerns in Washington. His hopes for President Grant were disappointed. Although disappointed politically, he enjoyed the informal Capitol life. The Edinburgh Review published his articles about corruption bringing him public attention. 

      Harvard reform President Charles W. Eliot appointed him assistant professor of medieval history in 1870. He usually socialized with younger Cambridge men, John Fiske, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., but he also visited the Ephraim Gurney household. There he renewed his acquaintance with Miss Marian Hooper, also known as Clover. Her sister was the wife of Harvard Dean Ephraim Gurney. It was Gurney who later hired Adams as North American Review editor. 

      Adams had met his future wife Marian Hooper (September 13, 1843-December 6, 1885), in 1866 when she was traveling in England with her father ophthalmologist Robert William Hooper. Her mother Ellen Sturgis Hooper, had been a minor poet and Transcendentalist. The Hoopers devoted themselves to philanthropy, art, and the education of their three children. Marian studied at Elizabeth Cary Agassiz’s Cambridge school. Dr. Hooper owned a King’s Chapel pew, while his wife attended James Freeman Clarke’s radically experimental Church of the Disciples, Boston. Marian’s grandparents entertained Emerson, and her mother and Aunt Caroline attended Margaret Fuller’s 1839 Conversations. They also contributed poetry to the Dial, the Transcendentalist journal. Clover’s mother wrote “Dry Lighted Soul,” dedicated to Ralph Waldo Emerson

      Henry and Marian were married on June 27, 1872 at the Hooper home in Beverly, Massachusetts by Rev. Charles Edward Grinnell (1841-1916), an 1865 Harvard Divinity School graduate. Adams called Grinnell “a jolly young fellow of our set.” Traveling to Europe following their wedding, they visited Henry’s father in Geneva where he was negotiating Civil War claims with the British. Henry and Clover proceeded to Berlin where her Unitarian cousin George Bancroft, U.S. Minister to Germany, introduced him to European historians and legal scholars. 

      Returning home after their honeymoon, Henry resumed his duties at Harvard in 1873. He was one of the first professors to teach using seminars. His Documents Relating to New England Federalism(1877), two biographies, John Randolph (1884) and The Life of Albert Gallitin (1879), and the nine volume History of the United States During the Administrations of Jefferson and Madison (1889-91) grew out of his graduate courses. His theme was the growth of America. The steamboat represented American power, as the dynamo would come symbolize a latter era. Chaffing at narrow academic life and clashing with the North American Review staff, he resigned his posts in 1877 and moved to Washington, D.C. to concentrate on writing. 

      Marian Hooper Adams was reared a Unitarian but became skeptical in later life. She was always loyal to Emersonian naturalism and never lost her social conscience. She was concerned for Native Americans and she was involved in her family's work with the Freedmans Bureau providing education for freed slaves. She said she wanted “to overcome prejudices,” but she often expressed contradictory preferences. She liked Italians compared to Germany’s “beer-drinking warriors.” She liked the Spanish while overlooking the social decay and corruption in Spain. She helped Henry with his writing but lacked ways to express her social concerns after their move to Washington, D.C. Clover was also a feminist. She and her cousin Elizabeth Bancroft shared an interest in the unconventional author George Sand. Although Henry favored education for women he questioned their abilities. Nevertheless, Clover studied Greek and Portuguese and backed her sister’s efforts to establish the Harvard annex that became Radcliffe. Clover softened Henry’s view of women and education. She was eager when women could vote for the first time in the 1879 school committee elections. 

      Clover’s Lafayette Square salon, across from the White House made her famous. John Hay, former Lincoln secretary and diplomat; Hay's wife Clara; and Clarence King, a geologist; made up their circle of friends known as the “Five of Hearts.” Mrs. Adams other interests included riding and portrait photography. She worked with photographic chemicals and darkrooms, processing her own pictures. She photographed her husband's parents and her portraits of Lincoln’s biographer John Hay and historian George Bancroft were significant. Although the Adamses didn't have children, she was a loving aunt to her five nieces, writing them stories, building them playhouses, and caring for them. Henry always had toys for little visitors. 

      Clover Adams was a literary model for her husband and for Henry James, a member of their Washington, D.C. circle. James shared Clover Adams Transcendentalist heritage. His Portrait of a Lady (1881) followed a visit with the Adamses. Protagonist Isabella Archer shares much of Clover’s personality. The despicable Gilbert Osmond characterizes Isabella saying, ". . . her sentiments were worthy of a radical newspaper or a Unitarian preacher.” 

      In addition to his historical writing, Henry Adams produced two novels, Democracy (1880) and Esther (1884). Like his wife Clover, the widowed Madeline Lee in Democracy, arrives in Washington, D.C. after a life of philanthropy. She organized a salon like Mrs. Adams. Writting under the name of Francis Snow Compton, he portrayed his wife again in Esther. He finished the book just before Clover’s death. Instead of the political corruption of Democracy, the novel concerns religion and its clash with science. 

      Clover took her own life by swallowing photographic chemicals on December 6, 1885, a few months after her father died. Her family sent for Unitarian minister Edward Hall, and she was interred in Rock Creek cemetery. There may have been a hereditary basis for her death. Even by the standards of upper class society her family was inbred. Her aunt died by her own hand. Her brother and sisters all attempted suicide. 


      Henry Brooks Adams Marian Hooper “Clover” Adams (english)
           Henry Brooks Adams  and Marian Hooper “Clover” Adams   The journalist, historian, novelist, Henry Brooks Adams ( February 16, 1838-March 27, 1918) was the son of Civil War diplomat Charles ...

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      Henry Brooks Adams et Marian Hooper "Clover" Adams
             Henry Brooks Adams et Marian Hooper "Clover" Adams Le journaliste, historien, romancier, Henry Brooks Adams (16 février 1838 - 27 mars 1918) était le fils du diplomate de guerre civile Cha...

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      Brooks Adams - National Park ServiceBrooks Adams was baptized by Nathaniel Frothingham, the Unitarian minister at First Church of Boston, Massachusetts. His mother and father, conscientious parents, took him to the new Sunday school at First Church where his father sometimes taught. Later his father was the Sunday school superintendent at their summer church in Quincy, Massachusetts. His parents worried about Brooks during his childhood; he seemed too active, was often inattentive, and sometimes made scenes in public. He collected stamps with a single-minded zeal that often interrupted family life, and he had reading and spelling problems that made his mother despair. In spite of these difficulties, his parents took young Brooks to places like the Smithsonian. He attended Columbia College in New York City, as did his sister Mary. 

      When his father went to England to represent the United States during the Civil War, Brooks went along, attending Wellesley House, a British public school. Although Brooks won prizes at Wellesley House in most subjects and acquired an English accent, he wasn't ready for Harvard which required Greek and Latin. Returning home in 1865, he was tutored by Professor Ephraim Whitman Gurney. By the fall of 1866, he passed the Harvard entrance examination and enrolled. The curriculum had changed little in the ten years since his brother Henry Adams had attended. Brooks did not enjoy his studies, except for Ephraim Gurney’s course on Rome, nor did he apply himself. In time though, he matured overcoming most of his childhood problems. His brothers John and Charles disliked him while Henry treated him well. Brooks did nothing to improve his relationship with Charles when he charged a wine bill to his older brother. At Harvard, Brooks went out for rowing, and was the first Adams to get an invitation to join the prestigious Porcellian club. Following a trip west after graduation, Brooks decided to study law at Harvard Law School. He roomed with his brother Henry in Wadsworth House. 

      His father, Charles Francis Adams, Sr. returned to the diplomatic service in 1871 to negotiate Civil War damage claims against Great Britain over the building of the Confederate warship Alabama. President Grant opposed the appointment, but Secretary of State Hamilton Fish wanted Adams. When his father went to Geneva, Switzerland to take his place on the arbitration commission, Brooks, interrupting law school, went with him. His mother Abigail could not go. In 1870, his sister Louisa Catherine Adams, also in Europe, died in an Italian carriage accident. His father returned home when his mother became ill, but Brooks remained in Paris, not coming back to the United States until 1872. Once home, he studied law on his own, passed the bar, and opened a practice. In his free time he pursued his interest in reform including corresponding with journalist and poet William Cullen Bryant and other movement leaders. He wrote articles for the North American Review—which his brother Henry Adams edited—and The Atlantic Monthly. He ran for the General Court in 1877 but lost by two votes. In 1880 he had a breakdown that may have been caused by overwork. After recuperating in Florida he visited Henry who was living in Washington, D.C. In better health, Brooks returned to Quincy to care for his aging parents. 

      After his recovery he gave up law and turned to history. His ambition was to write a philosophy of history. His Emancipation of Massachusetts (1886), written during this period, told the story of the commonwealth, as a struggle against clerical domination. He told Henry Cabot Lodge; “It is not really a history of Massachusetts but a metaphysical and philosophical inquiry as to the actions of the human mind in the progress of civilization….” He strongly criticized the Cambridge Platform believing it furthered the aims of the Standing Order and limited religious liberty. This critique of the clergy and ancestor-venerating histories created much controversy. Influential, it would eventually change the historical interpretation of that period. His father died during the writing, but Brooks continued to live at the Old House and care for his mother. Following publication, William James and Thomas Wentworth Higginson corresponded with him about the book. 


      Peter Charadon Brooks Adams (english)
            Peter Charadon Brooks Adams Peter Charadon Brooks Adams (June 24, 1848-February 14,1927) was a lawyer, historian, and writer, who served as an informal adviser to President Theodore Roosevelt. Although reared Unita...

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      Peter Charadon Brooks Adams
             Peter Charadon Brooks Adams Peter Charadon Brooks Adams (24 juin 1848 – 14 février 1927) était un avocat, historien et écrivain, qui a servi comme conseiller officiel du pr&eac...

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      Frances Power Cobbe (english)
            Frances Power Cobbe     Frances Power Cobbe (December 4, 1822-April 5, 1904) was one of the most influential figures in the British Unitarian movement of her day. Although she lacked formal educa...

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      Frances Power Cobbe
             Frances Power Cobbe   Frances Power Cobbe (4 décembre 1822 ; 5 avril 1904) a été l'une des figures les plus influentes dans le mouvement unitarien britannique de ses jours...

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      Antoinette Brown Blackwell (english)
            Antoinette Brown Blackwell Antoinette Louisa Brown Blackwell (May 20, 1825-November 5, 1921), a women's rights activist and social reformer, was the first American woman to be ordained as minister by a congreg...

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      Antoinette Brown Blackwell
             Antoinette Brown Blackwell Antoinette Louisa Brown Blackwell (20 mai 1825 – 5 novembre 1921), militante des droits des femmes et réformateur social, a été la première femme ...

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      Francis Ellingwood Abbot (english)
            Francis Ellingwood Abbot      Francis Ellingwood Abbot (November 6, 1836-October 23, 1903), a founder of the Free Religious Association and first editor of the radical journal, the Index, de...

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      Francis Ellingwood Abbot
             Francis Ellingwood Abbot Francis Ellingwood Abbot (6 novembre 1836 – 23 octobre 1903), l'un des fondateurs de la Free Religious Association et le premier rédacteur en chef de la revue r...

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      Matthew Caffyn (english)
         Matthew Caffyn Matthew Caffyn (bap. October 26, 1628, bur. June 1714), an important early British General Baptist preacher and evangelist, was an influential antitrinitarian. Matthew was the seventh son of Thomas and Eliza...

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      Matthew Caffyn
             Matthew Caffyn   Matthew Caffyn (26 octobre 1628 - Juin 1714), était un important des premiers prédicateurs et évangélistes Baptistes Généraux britaniques et aus...

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      John Boyden (English)
            John Boyden     John Boyden (May 14, 1809-September 28, 1869), a Universalist minister, politician, and social reformer, was a disciple of Hosea Ballou and the longtime pastor of the Fi...

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      John Boyden
             John Boyden John Boyden (14 mai 1809- 28 septembre 1869), un ministre universaliste, homme politique et réformateur social, était un disciple de Hosea Ballou et le pasteur de long...

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      Herman Bisbee (english)
      Herman Bisbee   Herman Bisbee ( October 29, 1833-July 6, 1879) is best known as the only American Universalist minister to have been found guilty of heresy. After losing his Universalist fellowship, he became a Unitarian. Herma...

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      Herman Bisbee
           Herman Bisbee Herman Bisbee (29 octobre, 1833 – 6 juillet 1879) est surtout connu pour être le seul ministre universaliste américain à avoir été reconnu coupable d'hér&...

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      Mary Billings (english)
      Mary Billings Mary Charlotte Ward Granniss Webster Billings (July 11, 1824-March 2, 1904) was a Universalist author, activist, and hymn writer. The wife of two Universalist ministers, she herself was ordained in 1892. Kind and gener...

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      Marie Billings
           Marie Billings Marie Ward Charlotte Granniss Webster Billings (11 juillet 1824 , 2 mars 1904) était une universaliste auteur, activiste et rédactrice de cantiques. Épouse de deux ministres ...

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      Clara Barton (english)
          Clara Barton Clara Barton (December 25, 1821-April 12, 1912) was both famous and honored in her lifetime—and has a well-earned place in American history—as the angel of Civil War battlefields and founder of the Ame...

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      Clara Barton
           Clara Barton Clara Barton (25 décembre 1821 – 12 avril 1912) était à la fois célèbre et honorée dans sa vie et a une place bien méritée dans l'histoire ...

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      P. T. Barnum (english)
      P. T. Barnum    Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810-April 7, 1891), known as P. T. Barnum, a prominent Universalist, the most influential American showman of the nineteenth century, was the founder of the first financially su...

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      P.T. Barnum
            PT Barnum   Phineas Taylor Barnum (5 juillet 1810 – 7 avril 1891), connu sous le nom P.T. Barnum, un éminent universaliste, le showman américain le plus influent du dix-neuvième ...

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      William Basch (english)
      William Balch  William Stevens Balch (April 13, 1806-December 25, 1887), a celebrated Universalist preacher, was also an evangelist, a denominational organizer, journalist, politician, teacher, and historian. Proud of his impartia...

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      William Balch
          William Balch William Stevens Balch (13 avril 1806 – 25 décembre 1887), un prédicateur célèbre universaliste, était aussi un évangéliste, organisateur confessionnel, ...

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